SONGS OF EMPOWERMENT: WOMEN IN 21ST CENTURY POPULAR MUSIC

First, a note. This is the first post I publish on the date it has been written after four months of silence, caused by the cyberattack that affected the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona on 11 October 2021 (the blog is hosted by UAB). I was confident that the texts were not lost, as I keep separate copies, but at one point I did believe that I would have to rebuild the whole blog from scratch (eleven years posting, more than 500 posts). This didn’t happen, but I learned an important lesson about the fragility of digital media and its ephemerality. Last week I posted the twelve posts I wrote between 11 October 2021 and 10 January 2022. The ensuing five weeks of silence between that date and today are due to my finally losing the impulse to write without imagining an audience. I don’t know who reads me, and I have never checked statistics, but I realize that every blog needs an audience, if only an imaginary one. So, thank you for being there.

In those five weeks I have been extremely busy editing the tenth e-book I have published with UAB students (see the complete list here). The book is called Songs of Empowerment: Women in 21st Century Popular Music) and it can be downloaded for free (in .pdf and .epub) from the digital repository of UAB. In its more than 300 very entertaining pages, the reader can find the students’ analyses of a selection of more than 60 songs by currently active women artists using English in their lyrics. Each short essay consists of a biographical presentation of the artist, followed by a commentary on the song, mainly focused on the lyrics, and of the music video. The songs run from 2000 (Kylie Minogue’s “Spinning Around”) to 2021 (Charli XCX’s “Good Ones”). The book is not, however, a history of women singers in the 21st century, but a selection based on the students’ preferences. It is a sort of snapshot of what music by women sounded like in the Autumn of 2021, when I taught the subject from which the e-book derives. And, yes, it comes with a Spotify list, compiled by one of the students.

This is the first time I have ever taught a course on music, and this requires some kind of justification being, as I am, a Literature teacher. It is obvious to me that most of us, born in the 1960s and later, who choose to study for a degree in English did (or do) so out of an interest in Anglophone music. I have always been a keen reader but my initiation into English was through the songs which I would try to translate painstakingly as soon as I bought any new album. Music, however, meaning basically pop and rock, has never been an integral part of English Studies degrees in Spain, and although I constantly told myself that I should teach a course on this topic, I procrastinated until I lost the ability to work while listening to music. With the time devoted to music reduced practically down to zero, I decided that the chance was gone to present myself before students pretending I knew about current trends. This changed last year when I supervised a marvelous BA dissertation by Andrea Delgado López on Childish Gambino’s music video “This is America”. Andrea also did a research internship with me that we used for her to produce a booklet called American Music Videos 2000-2020: Lessons about the Nation. Andrea wrote for each of the twenty-five videos analyzed a short essay presenting the singer(s), the song, and the video, and this gave me the idea for the e-book.

I told my students in the ‘Cultural Studies’ elective (2021-22) about the projected e-book, candidly confessing I had no idea about what was going on in the world of popular music in 2021. They would have to teach me. Since I believed that we could not cover everything of relevance in one single volume, we focused on the women artists, and I will focus next year on the male artists with my MA students in a similar project. I brought to class a very long list of about one hundred women singers, all of them active, and asked students to choose two each, which they did, adding some new suggestions. I gave them, then, as much freedom of choice as possible, though I made sure that the main names got due attention (some, like St Vincent or Kacey Musgraves, will be probably missed, though, perhaps also Alanis Morrissette). I extended this freedom of choice to the songs, which students selected on the basis of their preferences and also thinking of whether the song and video combination would be productive enough for their essays. In a feedback session which I held at the end of the course, some told me that had been a major difficulty, since many favorite songs had no music video, or because they found the videos less interesting than the songs. I happen to like music videos very much as a strange bastard child of cinema and advertising, so there was never a question of focusing only on a song. Given, besides, our lack of training in music, I feared that students would be unable to write even a few hundred words on lyrics which are often very basic at a poetic or literary level.

Something quite peculiar has happened in relation to the main thesis behind the e-book. I originally announced that we would organize the class presentations of the songs and videos (used as a rehearsal or pre-draft of the essays) around the question of whether the songs women pop singers sing today are empowering. Little by little, we lost track of that question, as we worried mainly about how to continue the presentations with no internet in the classroom because of the cyberattack. We became so interested by the particularities of each singer—from mainstream Jennifer Lopez to indie Mitski, and so many others—that the notion of empowerment lost focus. We did discuss it all the time indirectly, mainly by commenting on the artists’ self-presentation and whether their choices could be called feminist and other issues such as race or class; it seemed to us that depression and abuse, a constant in most singers’ biographies, were somehow antagonists to any notion of empowerment. However, as I went through the second final draft of the essays, I noticed that the students had not missed at all the notion of empowerment, and had in fact addressed their essays mostly to explain how this is not in contradiction with women having been radically disempowered by patriarchy. That is to say, the common thread in the e-book is how women singers, despite being in some cases quite powerful, are constantly subjected to abuse (mental, physical, even commercial) and must send each other a message in favour of self-empowerment. This message is not sent, as I assumed, by songs that celebrate natural strength but by songs that candidly admit that strength is often born of vulnerability. In that sense Madonna, though still the Queen of Pop, is not representative but, rather, Rihanna, whose battered face we all remember and, indeed, Lady Gaga.

Although with variations, most of the songs in the e-book (and, believe me, they are a very representative selection) hold the same discourse: the singer describes how she fell in love with a man who turned out to be either abusive or simply disappointing, next how hard it was to break up with this man because of the strong hold of love on her mind and body; and, finally, how this experience brought empowerment by teaching the woman that she, and not a man, should be the centre of her own life. I found that with few exceptions (such as Shania Twain’s “I’m Gonna Getcha Good!” and perhaps Cardi B and Megan Thee Stallion’s “WAP”), the expression of female heterosexual desire for men had been replaced by the expression of a constant disillusion with heterosexual love and masculinity. With the songs women not only express their personal feelings but aim at giving other women support, inviting them to discuss their own views of love. The classic love song with the triad “I love you”, “I want you”, “I need you” has been replaced by “I once loved and wanted you, but now I don’t need you anymore”; “I will survive” is now “Of course I will survive, why shouldn’t I?” Secondarily, there is also a parallel discourse on femininity, which on the one hand expresses great admiration for women’s superiority (Ariana Grande’s “God is a Woman”, Halsey’s “I Am not a Woman, I’m a God”) and at the same time a certain acknowledgement of imperfections (as in Celine Dion’s eponymous song), which must be accepted as they are. I have no room here to comment on each of the sixty plus songs—please, read the book—but I think these are the main lines.

In class another topic that came up recurrently is how much pressure these women singers must endure from the social media. Since music videos became popular after the establishment of MTV in the mid-1980s, women singers have had to accept a constant exposure of their bodies to the public gaze. Videos, photoshoots and even performances are subjected, however, to a limited time frame. Social media are not, which means that female singers must now be posting on a daily basis about their activities, their looks, and their private lives trying to please fans but also battling haters. Just a week ago Charlie XCX announced on Twitter that she is taking a break from social media, tired of the endless monitoring and the angry comments by her own fans: “I’ve been grappling quite a lot with my mental health the past few months and obviously it makes negativity and criticism harder to handle when I come across it—and of course, I know this is a common struggle for most people in this day and age.” So it is, indeed, but because of how the lines between being a celebrity and being a pop artist have been blurred, many women singers like Charlie XCX are bearing a brunt that few other professional must endure. It seems to me that the pressure is much lighter on the male singers.

Next year, as I have noted, I will be dealing with the men in current popular music. I do have a list already of bigger and lesser names, and I’m bracing myself for the barrage of sexist, misogynistic lyrics, particularly those coming from rap. I am telling myself, though, that these lyrics must be analysed, also the music videos, from a perspective as constructive as possible. I don’t know, however, what the resulting e-book will tell us. I just hope it is not called Songs of Entitlement, though my deepest fear is that it will.

I publish a post once a week (follow @SaraMartinUAB). Comments are very welcome! Download the yearly volumes from https://ddd.uab.cat/record/116328. Visit my website https://gent.uab.cat/saramartinalegre/. The Spanish version of the posts is available from https://blogs.uab.cat/saramartinalegre/es/

MUSINGS ON WOMEN’S SINGERS: BETWEEN POP AND ROCK

NOTE: This post was originally written on 6 December 2021, but it’s published now, months later because of the cyberattack that UAB suffered then and that caused the temporary suspension of this blog

This semester I am teaching, as I have been narrating, a course on Cultural Studies based on analysing a selection of 60 songs by currently active women singers. Each student works on two singers, and I myself chose to work on Kylie Minogue and, after some hesitation between other options, Shirley Manson from Garbage. I offered my first presentation on Minogue’s “Spinning Around” without any glitch, except, as I could see, that students were a bit dismayed that I had chosen a bubbly pop song and a music video focused on Ms. Minogue’s display of her fabulous derriere in her iconic golden hot pants. The reception of my presentation of Garbage’s much more aggressively feminist “The Men Who Rule the World”, with lyrics by Manson and part of their most recent album, No Gods No Masters (2021), was, however, far more tepid, not to say cold.

I am sure that I used the same enthusiasm as for Minogue, and that the song and the video are no worse than many others we have enjoyed in class. It seems, though that I made a mistake in using a quotation to describe Manson’s reputation. Here it is (this comes from an article by Dayna Evans published in 2017, so please add four years to the ages mentioned); see https://www.thecut.com/2017/06/shirley-manson-garbage-returns-with-blondie.html. Manson states that

“[Debbie Harry and I] are some of the few women left who do what we do in the way that we do it. We’re getting rarer and rarer. I think people understand that this breed is dying.” She pauses, and adds, “Literally dying”. Harry and Manson belong to a generation of women musicians who, as she puts it, “write their own music and aren’t chasing pop success,” but Manson worries that the bloodline is thinning. Patti Smith is 70. Chrissie Hynde, 65. Courtney Love, 52”. (…)
For Manson, many of the music industry’s current megastars fail to pass her rock litmus test. “Rihanna is the closest thing we have in the pop world to a rockstar”, she muses, adding that she’s a huge fan of pop music. “If Rihanna wanted to make rock music, I’m sure she could. But unless you’re playing rock music, you’re not a rockstar”.

This elicited some comments in class about Manson’s patronizing attitude towards pop stars, triggered, I assume, by the perception that the much younger Rihanna (33 to Manson’s 55) is a much bigger figure than Manson herself. My students are around 20-22, so it is not surprising that they had never heard of Garbage, formed in 1993 and most popular between 1995 and 2007, when they disbanded (they reunited in 2010). Perhaps I didn’t help matters very much by stressing that Manson is my own age and that I admire her for a cool I will never acquire (but, then, the same goes for Minogue, aged 53). The question is that, clearly, if asked to choose between Manson and Rihanna, my students would opt for Rihanna. To my chagrin, they did not even like that much Chilean artist Javiera Garcia-Huidobro’s video for “The Men Who Rule the World”, with its clever cut-out artwork and its merger of the images of Manson and Metropolis’ Maria. A student found its anti-patriarchal imagery too overtly phallic. I’m miffed, most of all with myself for not being able to transmit Manson’s appeal.

The Shirley Manson fiasco started a conversation in class about why pop is more appealing than rock for women. I grant that I introduced the wrong bias in the course by focusing on solo singers, which has limited the presence of frontwomen in rock bands (I was more worried about excluding girl bands, which I am not really interested in). This means that we are more focused on pop than I originally conceived, though at the same time this has made the course (and the future e-book we are writing) more coherent.

In the notes I sent my students after class, I referred to some passages in the article by Joanca of November 2021 for Spinditty, “Why Did Rock Music Decline, and Can It Make a Comeback?” (https://spinditty.com/genres/rock-music-comeback). Joanca writes that “Girls and women 40 and under mainly purchase pop music. Despite the success of some later female rockers like 10,000 Maniacs and Alanis Morissette, modern rock still seems to have a problem attracting female buyers”. Joanca grants they doesn’t know why women and girls are much less interested in rock music, “but perhaps the feminist movement is one reason. The overt sexism and masculine nature of rock may have been a turn-off to girls raised with ideas of female empowerment. The rise of strong women in pop music, like Madonna, may have made it more appealing to girls and women as both listeners and artists.” I find that this is a good point, and in fact I ended up arguing in class that Madonna’s legacy is right now much bigger than Mick Jagger’s, whose most obvious male successors I fail to spot.

This other article, of March 2021 by Dorian Lynski, “Why Bands Are Disappearing: ‘Young People Aren’t Excited by Them’” (https://www.theguardian.com/music/2021/mar/18/why-bands-are-disappearing-young-people-arent-excited-by-them, considers the gradual fall of rock from another perspective, less focused on gender. The article was sparked by a comment from Maroon 5’s lead singer Adam Levine in the sense that there are no rock bands left –to which Shirley Manson angrily replied “What are we? CATS!?” What Levine meant is that there are no new rock bands making it to the charts; he was in fact issuing the same complaint Manson had voiced in the quotation about the ageing generation of women in rock. Several arguments are considered regarding the problem of the dwindling number of bands, most boiling down to the impact of the digital technologies: equipping a band to play live and funding their records is expensive in comparison to working with a laptop alone in your bedroom; social media seem better geared towards solo pop stardom. I believe that the popularity of Korean and Japanese boy bands contradicts the impression that watching guys together on the stage has lost its appeal, as another argument goes, but I do believe that what has gone is the sexual appeal of the rock music instruments, above all the electric guitar. Somehow, heterosexual women no longer fall for that (is there anything more pathetic than a rock groupie today?), whereas they never mastered the art of appropriating the electric guitar for themselves. I don’t mean by this that women can’t play rock, what I mean is that they have not generated an appealing iconography –or one as appealing as that of pop stars. Women rock singers may have fared better (I still believe that cool Manson is a case in point) but with very few exceptions like the ones she names, and others like Sharleen Spiteri of Texas, female rockstars are not rocking. Could it be, allow me to be flippant, that electric guitars don’t go well with dresses?

This does not mean that there is an insurmountable divide between rock and pop, or that each genre is gendered, with rock being male territory and pop, female. What it means is that none knows very well what the white guys that used to be the most visible fans of rock music are consuming. Possibly, Spotify has the key to the mystery. My students claim that the women pop singers we are studying have an audience composed of other women and of LGTBIQ+ persons, with, perhaps, a tiny minority of cis-hetero men. They say that, most likely, white men are listening to non-white men in the rap and reggaeton territories, unless music’s best-kept secret is that they are indeed following mostly women pop singers. I don’t think the audience for rock is lost for good, but I don’t think either that young men are pouring their energies into playing rock music. Maybe here is the key: rock needs a certain type of energy that you don’t see young white guys possessing today, and that young women are applying to pop (rap included). Perhaps what we are seeing is an extension of the listlessness that has young men do worse than young women in school and university to the world of music, but that’s just speculation. After all, black men seem to be doing fine as rap musicians, having never been truly interested in rock.

Manson might be right, then, to worry that popstars are not rockstars, being a rockstar herself in her mid-fifties, with no obvious female disciples. Perhaps they are to be found in the indie labels, and the problem is that it takes too much effort for rock lovers to find them given the dominion of the charts and of the Spotify pop lists (though I assume that Spotify might have a list of women indie rockstars). Manson is wrong, though, in assuming that there is a hierarchy in which rockstars are placed above popstars, which is what annoyed my students. I could imagine Rihanna patronizingly say that “If Manson wanted to make pop music, I’m sure she could. But unless you’re playing pop music, you’re not a popstar”. I hope Manson has not fallen in the classic patriarchal trap of pitting talented women against each other so that we fail to build the solidarity and sorority that should help all women singer march forward.

I publish a post once a week (follow @SaraMartinUAB). Comments are very welcome! Download the yearly volumes from https://ddd.uab.cat/record/116328. Visit my website https://gent.uab.cat/saramartinalegre/. The Spanish version of the posts is available from https://blogs.uab.cat/saramartinalegre/es/

A MINI-HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SINGING (IN ENGLISH): THE 20TH CENTURY

This is, no doubt, the strangest post I have ever published, but pending the transformation by my students of this list into a Spotify list (as they promised), here is my selection of 20th century songs by women (in English). I am currently teaching a Cultural Studies course on women in pop, and instead of lecturing to my students on names and titles corresponding to ninety years of women’s music, I produced this list and invited them to spend part of three sessions sampling the goods. In that way I managed, besides, to find an interesting use for the cellphones in class!

Please, don’t think that the list is ready-made and available elsewhere, or that it was easily compiled. I went through lots of websites claiming to offer the best of specific decades and came up with a selection that while surely very imperfect hopefully serves well as an introduction. As you may see, I have placed the women singers in order by date of birth. They appear in the decade when they had their first hit, with some exceptions (for instance, Tina Turner, though famous in the 1960s, appears here in the 1980s when she made her glorious comeback). The list ends in 1999 because my students are working on a collective e-book about 21st century women’s songs (in English), to be published next January. Finally, all the songs can be found on YouTube, which has the advantage of having you see the women in question to better learn (or remember) what wonderful artists they all are.

1920-29: Del blues al jazz
Marion Harris (1896–1944), ‘I Ain’t Got Nobody’ (1916)
Mamie Smith (1883–1946), ‘Crazy Blues’ (1920)
Ethel Waters (1896–1977), ‘Stormy Weather’ (1933)
Ida Cox (1896–1967), ‘Wild Women Don’t Have The Blues’ (1924)
Gertrude Pridgett Rainey, a.k.a. Ma Rainey (1886–1939), ‘Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom’ (1927), ‘Deep Moaning Blues’ (1928)
Bessie Smith (1892–1937), ‘Nobody Knows You When You’re Down and Out’ (1929)
Clara Smith (1894–1935), ‘Troublesome Blues’ (1927)
Bertha “Chippie” Hill (1905–1950), ‘Trouble in Mind’ (1926)
Annette Hanshaw (1901–1985), ‘Am I Blue’ (1929)
Victoria Spivey (1906–1976), ‘How Do You Do It that Way?’ (1929)

1930-39: ‘Big band’, jazz, canciones de películas
Sippie Wallace (1898–1986), ‘I’m a Mighty Tight Woman’ (1937)
Jeanette MacDonald (1903–1965), ‘San Francisco’ (1936)
Blanche Calloway and her Boys (1904–1978), ‘I Need Loving’ (1934)
The Boswell Sisters: Martha (1905–1958), Connee (1907 –1976) y Helvetia “Vet” (1911–1988), ‘Cheek to Cheek’ (1934–5)
Martha Tilton (1915–2006), ‘And the Angels Sing’ (1939)
Billie Holiday (1915–1959), ‘Strange Fruit’ (1939)
Ella Fitzgerald (1917–1996), ‘Dream a Little Dream of Me’ (1931, cover version 1956)
Bea Wain (1917–2017), ‘Heart and Soul’ (1939)
Judy Garland (1922–1969), ‘Over the Rainbow’ (1939)

The 1940s: More blues, swing and vocal melody
Alberta Hunter (1895–1984), ‘The Love I Have for You’ (1940)
Mahalia Jackson (1911–1972), ‘Move On Up A Little Higher’ (1947)
The Andrews Sisters: LaVerne Sophia (1911–1967), Maxene Anglyn (1916–1995), and Patricia Marie “Patty” (1918–2013), ‘Rum and Coca–Cola’ (1944)
Lena Horne (1917–2010), ‘Mad about the Boy’ (1941)
Helen Forrest (1918–1999), big band singer, ‘Skylark’ (1942)
Vera Lynn (1917–2020), ‘We’ll Meet Again’ (1943)
Anita O’Day (1919–2006), ‘Let Me Off Uptown’ (1941)
June Christy (1925–1990), ‘Tampico’ (1945)

The 1950s: Beginnings of pop
Dinah Shore (1916–1994), ‘Love and Marriage’ (1955)
Georgia Gibbs (1918–2006), ‘Kiss of Fire’ (1952)
Peggy Lee (1920–2002), ‘Fever’ (1958)
Sarah Lois Vaughan (1924–1990), ‘Misty’ (1959)
Doris Day (1922–2019), ‘Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be Will Be)’ (1956)
Dinah Washington (1924–1963) [O’Brien: ‘the missing link between the blues and the swing of the 1940s and the glorious technicolor of 60s R&B’], ‘What a Diff’rence a Day Makes!’ (1959)
Lita Roza (1926–2008), ‘Secret Love’ (1954)
Julie London (1926–2000), ‘Cry Me a River’ (1953, 1955)
Eartha Kitt (1927–2008), ‘Santa Baby’ (1953)
Patti Page (1927–2013), ‘How much is that doggie in the window?’ (1952)
Rosemary Clooney (1928–2002), ‘Tenderly’ (1952)
Connie Francis (1937 –) [O’Brien: ‘America’s biggest 1950s star’], ‘Lipstick on your collar’ (1959)
Patsy Cline (1932–1963), ‘Walking after Midnight’ (1957)
Debbie Reynolds (1932–2016), ‘Tammy’ (1957)

1950s to 1960s: Motown and the girl group
The Supremes 1959–1977 (Diana Ross, Mary Wilson, Florence Ballard), ‘Where Did your Love Go?’ (1964)
The Ronettes 1950–1966 (Veronica Bennett (Ronnie Spector), Estelle Bennett, Nedra Talley), ‘Be My Baby’
Mary Wells (1943–1999), ‘My Guy’ (1964)

The 1960s: Pop, rock, folk and beyond
Petula Clark (1932–), ‘Downtown’ (1965)
Shirley Bassey (UK, 1937–), ‘Goldfinger’ (1965)
Etta James (1938–2012), ‘I’d Rather Go Blind’ (1965)
Nico (1938–1988), with the Velvet Underground, ‘Sunday Morning’ (1967)
Dusty Springfield (1939–1999), ‘I Only Wanna Be with You’ (1964)
Grace Slick (1939–) (with Jefferson Starplane), ‘White Rabbit’ (1967)
Dionne Warwick (1940 –), ‘Do You Know the Way to San Jose?’ (1968)
Cass Elliot (1941–1974), with The Mamas & the Papas, ‘California Dreaming’ (1966)
Aretha Franklin (1942–2018), ‘Respect’ (1967)
Janis Joplin (1943–1970), ‘Me and Bobby Mc Gee’ (1970)
Brenda Lee (1944–), ‘I’m Sorry’ (1960)
Cher (1946–), with Sonny ‘I Got You Baby’ (1965)
Brenda Holloway (1946–), ‘Every Little Bit Hurts’ (1962)
Lesley Gore (1946–2015), ‘It’s My Party’ (1963)
Nina Simone (1933–2003), ‘Mississippi Goddam’ (1964)
Cilla Black (1943–2015), ‘You’re my World’ (1965)
Sandie Shaw (1947–), ‘Girl Don’t Come’ (1969)
Lulu (1948–), ‘To Sir with Love’ (1967)

The 1970s: Folk, pop, rock, disco…
Joan Baez (1941–), ‘Diamond and Rust’ (1975)
Carole King (1942–), ‘You’ve Got a Friend’ (1971)
Barbra Streisand (1942–), ‘The Way We Were’ (1974)
Joni Mitchell (1943–), ‘Big Yellow Taxi’ (1971)
Debbie Harry (frontwoman Blondie) (1945–), ‘Heart of Glass’ (1978)
Anni–Frid Lyngstad (1945–) and Agnetha Fältskog (1950–) (with ABBA), ‘Waterloo’ (1974)
Carly Simon (1945–), ‘You’re So Vain’ (1971)
Linda Rondstadt (1945–), ‘Blue Bayou’ (1977)
Patti Smith (1946), ‘Because the Night’ (1978)
Dolly Parton (1946–), ‘I Will Always Love You’ (1974)
Emmylou Harris (1947–), ‘If I Could Only Win Your Love’ (1975)
Olivia Newton–John (1948–), ‘Hoplessly Devoted to You`(1979)
Donna Summer (1948–2012), ‘I Feel Love’ (1977)
Stevie Nicks (1948–) (with Fleetwood Mac), ‘Dreams’ (1977)
Bonnie Tyler (1951–), ‘It’s a Heartache’ (1977)
Kate Bush (1958–), ‘Wuthering Heights’ (1978)

The 1980s: the MTV age begins
Tina Turner (1939–), ‘The Best’ (1988)
Grace Jones (1948–), ‘Slave to the Rhythm’ (1985)
Pat Benatar (1953–), ‘Love is a Battlefield’ (1984)
Cyndi Lauper (1953–), ‘Girls Just Wanna Have Fun’ (1979, 1983)
Annie Lennox (1954–), (with Eurythmics), ‘Sweet Dreams (Are Made of This)’ (1983)
Chaka Khan (1954–), ‘Through the Fire’ (1984)
Gloria Stefan (1957–), ‘Conga’ (1988)
Siouxie Sioux (1957–) (frontwoman Siouxie and the Banshees), ‘Happy House’ (1980)
Madonna (1958–), ‘Like a Virgin’ (1984)
Belinda Carlyle (1958–) (lead singer The Go–Gos), ‘Heaven is a Place on Earth’ (1987)
Sade Adu (1959–), ‘Smooth Operator’ (1984)
Suzanne Vega (1959–), ‘Luka’ (1987)
Alison Moyet (1961–) (with Yazoo), ‘Only You’ (1982)
Whitney Houston (1963–2012), ‘I Wanna Dance with Somebody’ (1987)
Tracy Chapman (1964–), ‘Fast Car’ (1988)
Janet Jackson (1966–), ‘Rhythm Nation’ (1989)
Kylie Minogue (1968–), ‘I Should Be So Lucky’ (1987)

The 1990s: Before social media
Marie Fredriksson (1958–2019) (with Roxette), ‘It Must Have Been Love’ (1990)
P.J. Harvey (1959–), ‘Down by the Water’ (1995)
Melissa Etheridge (1961–), ‘Come to my Window’ (1993)
Björk (1965–), ‘Venus as a Boy’ (1993)
Sheryl Crow (1962–), ‘All I Wanna Do’ (1994)
Shania Twain (1965–), ‘That Don’t Impress me Much’ (1997)
Sinead O’Connor (1966–), ‘Nothing Compares 2U’ (1990)
Liz Phair (1967–), ‘Supernova’ (1994)
Toni Braxton (1967–), ‘Unbreak my Heart’ (1966)
Tori Amos (1967–), ‘Tear in Your Hand’ (1992)
Sarah McLachlan (1968–), ‘Angel’ (1999)
Anastacia (1968–), ‘I’m Outta Love’ (1999)
Lisa Loeb (1968–), ‘I Do’ (1997)
Celine Dion (1968–), ‘My Heart Will Go On’ (1997)
Gwen Stefani (1969–) (with No Doubt), ‘Just a Girl’ (1995)
Mariah Carey (1969–), ‘Hero’ (1993)
Jennifer Lopez (1969–), ‘If You Had my Love’ (1999)
Missy Elliot (1971–), ‘Sock It 2 Me’ (1997)
Alanis Morrisette (1974–), ‘You Oughta Know’ (1995)
Aaliyah (1979–2001), ‘You Are Love’ (1994)
Brandy (1979–), ‘I Wanna Be Down’ (1994)
Christina Aguilera (1980–), ‘Come On Over (All I Want is You’) (1999)
Britney Spears (1981–), ‘Baby One More Time’ (1998)

Enjoy!

I publish a post once a week (follow @SaraMartinUAB). Comments are very welcome! Download the yearly volumes from https://ddd.uab.cat/record/116328. Visit my website https://gent.uab.cat/saramartinalegre/. The Spanish version of the posts is available from https://blogs.uab.cat/saramartinalegre/es/